Essays in Political Philosophy Published:
The difficulty is, in part, that while political theory is professionally attached to the discipline of political science, it has, intellectually, since at least the early s, evolved as a relatively autonomous interdisciplinary field of study allied more closely to academic practices such as philosophy and history.
As a generic form of discourse conducted in diverse ways and settings by university scholars as well as by political actors, political theory is apt to be conceived as a relatively universal endeavor.
However, as a self-ascribed and institutionally differentiated academic field, political theory refers to a form of discourse that was a nineteenth-century American invention. Although it is possible, and common, to identify, in various countries and eras, what might be considered as functional equivalents and prototypes of this academic practice, it was largely a creation of American political science.
A Scottish Enlightenment perspective dominated this course of studies, which included practical ethics and was taught by Protestant clergy. This iconic literature, which became the core of a classic canon, was viewed not only as the progenitor of the ideas embodied in American institutions but also as containing principles that should be inculcated in citizens and political leaders.
From the point of his earliest writing on the study of politics Manual of Political Ethics,Lieber also situated the already canonical authors, from Plato onward, as central actors in a Kantian and Hegelian vision of history, which was the story of the state and its evolution toward institutions of civil liberty.
Lieber believed these institutions were most fully manifest in the American nation state. Lieber designated the classic authors, beginning with the ancient Greeks, as the predecessors of the field of study that he was attempting to institutionalize, and the history of politics culminated in American self-government where the existence of a sovereign people overrode diversity.
The emerging discipline, as a whole, was devoted to justifying American government as the ultimate realization of popular sovereignty, and the study of the history of political thought validated that putative body of knowledge by attaching it to an illustrious lineage.
The history of political ideas was conceived as, at once, the history of political science and the history of the theory and practice of the state, and thus as providing a provenance for both the discipline and its subject matter.
Although Dunning broadened the perspective beyond the earlier Germanic accounts, he continued to stress the claims that the history of political theory was the past of contemporary political science, that politics were the subject of history, and that political change was a product of a dialectical relationship between political ideas and their social context.
The work of W. Willoughby at Johns Hopkins University paralleled that of Dunning. Willoughby emphasized the importance of theory in political life and, even more than Dunning, the immanence of political ideas in the context of political fact in his Political Theories of the Ancient Worldbut he also stressed the difference between political thought in politics and political theory as an element of political science.
He was one of the principal actors in founding the American Political Science Association and in designating political theory as a recognized subfield, and he claimed that the history of political theory should also be viewed as a repository of concepts for scientific political inquiry.
Merriam, who along with his colleagues in the Chicago school fundamentally changed the character of the discipline during the course of the s, the history of political theory remained an important element of political science.
Despite the new emphasis on political theory as an element of an empirical science of politics, the history of political thought continued to dominate the subfield of political theory. The history functioned as both the story of democracy and an account of the development of political science.
What had also taken place, however, beginning in the mids, was an Americanization, and Anglicanization, of the literature. This was in part a consequence of the turn away from German philosophy after World War I —and there was also greater intercourse with England and the influence of a number of British scholars.
But although the more strictly Hegelian elements that had characterized the American adaptation faded, the essential characteristics of the form, such as the relativity of ideas leavened by an idealist image of progress, persisted.
The crisis of democratic theory in political science during the s ended with the demise of the theory of the state as an account of democracy based on the belief in the existence of a homogeneous American public.
However, the history of political theory continued to flourish as a justification for the new theory of democratic pluralism, as well as for the changing image of political science.
The political polarization of the globe in the s and an inferiority complex about the articulation of democracy, or liberalism, as an ideology provided incentives for moving that history yet further in the direction of justifying American democracy.
The image of a great tradition political thought became, more than ever, the past of both American politics and political science. Works such as C.
Although Sabine claimed that political ideas were relative to their context, depreciated the assumption that political theory had anything to do with ultimate truth, and stressed the danger of all transcendental perspectives from natural law to Marxism, he sustained the image of progress in both ideas and institutions.In this essay we will discuss about the political theory of Marxism.
“Marxist philosophy is like great poetry – after it no one else can write without taking it into account. “— T. S. Eliot Karl Marx’s political thought called Marxism is the most vital political philosophy of nineteenth century world. It not only topsy-turvicd [ ].
Free Essay: The political philosophy of Hezbollah, an Islamic militant group and political party is mainly influenced by the external factors. The Political Philosophy of Hazebullah Essay. Words 7 Pages.
entered the political arena of Lebanese in for the purpose of taking control of Lebanon and to make the people and world. Jul 24, · 1. The Place of Political Philosophy within Kant’s Philosophical System. Kant’s political philosophy is a branch of practical philosophy, one-half of one of the broadest divisions in Kant’s thought between practical and theoretical philosophy.
Political philosophy was long disvalued by Brit philosophy departments so political philosopher/theorists were much more likely to be in Politics departments, were happy to publish in Political Studies, so that it became a journal that American political philosophers in philosophy departments routinely looked at; and it has kept that up.
lication in the Appendix of my essay on the state of Cicero studies appreciating the political defense of philosophy that constitutes an im-portant theme of that work. Strauss had compared Cicero’s political strains of philosophy in the post-Enlightenment world.
Cicero’s Practical Philosophy,, Cicero’s Practical Philosophy. “To Shape a New World firmly situates Dr. King in the canon of American political thought.
An extraordinary group of scholars grapple with the subtlety and nuance of King’s political philosophy, and they set the stage for a renewed engagement with his broader work.