A modern recording of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
Insofar as there was a standard coinage of funeral tribute, Pericles struck the master coin 2, years before Lincoln spoke. Edward Everett lost no time referring to that speech at Gettysburg. He opened his talk with a detailed description of the annual funeral rite at which Pericles had spoken, comparing it point for point with the ceremony for the Union dead.
Both rites involved reburial. Athenian soldiers or sailors were cremated where they fell, then their ashes were returned to Athens and buried, together, on the annual day of military tribute.
They were buried by tribe, with a special place for those whose tribes could not be identified -- as the Union dead were buried by states, except for those "unknown soldiers" who had their own special place.
But at Gettysburg the reburial was still at the battle site. The ancient parallel for this, Everett was learned enough to know, was the Battle of Marathon B.
These references, common enough at the time, all had a special meaning for Everett, considered by some the new Pericles for a young democracy of the Western world. Like most men of the eighteenth century, they thought of Athens as ruled by mobs.
If any Greek city was admired, it was Sparta, whose discipline inspired the severe moralists of the early Roman republic.
The great republican of the new era, George Washington, was regularly referred to as a modern Cincinnatus, after the Roman who left the plow to serve the republic and then returned to his fields, relinquishing power.
When Jefferson laid out the plan for his University of Virginia, he fashioned everything to Roman architectural standards. All this changed very rapidly as the eighteenth turned to the nineteenth century.
Archaeology in Greece brought the ancient democracy to mind just as modern Greece began its struggle for freedom from the Turks.
Greece would prove as important to the romantic movement as Rome had been to the Augustan age. Byron died as a military participant in the war for Greek liberty.
Shelley wrote a Prometheus. Keats rhapsodized on a Grecian urn. Architects looked to the Parthenon now, not the Pantheon. The Elgin Marbles, taken from the Parthenon, had been moved to London by The fact that it became expressive for the whole of American society, from the erudite to the untutored, from the capital to the village, from the city house to the farm, gave it a national independence and set it apart from the architecture of Europe in a way and to a degree that American builders had never before achieved.
Indeed, at no time in the history of Western man had a single stylistic form, however sentimentally conceived, been so spontaneously accepted by a total society. Harvard established its new chair of ancient Greek studies for him.
He had sped through Harvard at the top of his class, completed his divinity studies, and been appointed to the prestigious Brattle Street pulpit before he was twenty.
His promise as a scholar made Harvard call him back from the pulpit to the classroom. While Everett was abroad, he traveled widely and met the leaders of the romantic age, from Goethe to Byron. He went to Greece, to walk over the battlefields where the first democracy of the West won its freedom.
He returned to America convinced that a new Athens was rising here. This was a vision he found it hard to keep alive while teaching teenagers their Greek verb forms? His earlier success in the pulpit made him think he could accomplish in the secular sphere what the ancient orators had in the Greek marketplace, groves, and public cemetery Agora, Akademy, and Kerameikos.
Here was a warrior from the age of General Washington surviving into the age of Byron.Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and rutadeltambor.com -ESSAY: Lincoln's Greatest Speech: Frederick Douglass called it "a sacred effort," and Lincoln himself thought that his Second Inaugural, which offered a theodicy of the Civil War, was better than the Gettysburg Address Author: Garry Wills.
And, as Garry Wills explains in his book Lincoln at Gettysburg, it was a revolution that was carried out in the space of three minutes and in the speaking of words. The Gettysburg Address is a speech that U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered during the American Civil War at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, , four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the Battle of rutadeltambor.com is one of the best-known speeches in.
Jun 14, · Wills demonstrates that at Gettysburg Lincoln embraced the roots of American democracy by returning to the Declaration of Independence and championing its statement on equality as an ideal too.
DKD Review of Lincoln at Gettysburg [from the Christian Scholar's Review, September , pp. ] Garry Wills' Lincoln at Gettysburg is a wonderful book by a mature scholar.