October 27, at 6: Niccolo Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy during the late Fifteenth century. In addition to being one of the most prominent political thinkers of his time, Machiavelli also served as a diplomat, public official, writer, and historian. In this essay, Machiavelli exposes the perpetual cycle of disintegration and re-birth inherent to the three major forms of government in an attempt to emphasize the advantage of a stable government consisting of separate powers and a system of mutual checks on those powers.
Using five performance indicators to measure health systems in member states, it finds that France provides the best overall health care followed among major countries by Italy, Spain, Oman, Austria and Japan. Yet there is wide variation in performance, even among countries with similar levels of income and health expenditure.
It is essential for decision- makers to understand the underlying reasons so that system performance, and hence the health of populations, can be improved. This leads to large numbers of preventable deaths and disabilities; unnecessary suffering, injustice, inequality and denial of an individual's basic rights to health.
Many health ministries focus on the public sector and often disregard the frequently much larger private sector health care. In many countries, some if not most physicians work simultaneously for the public sector and in private practice.
This means the public sector ends up subsidizing unofficial private practice. Many governments fail to prevent a "black market" in health, where widespread corruption, bribery, "moonlighting" and other illegal practices flourish. The black markets, which themselves are caused by malfunctioning health systems, and low income of health workers, further undermine those systems.
Many health ministries fail to enforce regulations that they themselves have created or are supposed to implement in the public interest. It's the balance among inputs that counts — for example, you have to have the right number of nurses per doctor.
Because of the AIDS epidemic, healthy life expectancy for babies born in in many of these nations has dropped to 40 years or less.
One key recommendation from the report is for countries to extend health insurance to as large a percentage of the population as possible.
WHO says that it is better to make "pre-payments" on health care as much as possible, whether in the form of insurance, taxes or social security. What we are seeing is that in many countries, the poor pay a higher percentage of their income on health care than the rich.
In other words, illness forces them into debt. It compares each country's system to what the experts estimate to be the upper limit of what can be done with the level of resources available in that country.
It also measures what each country's system has accomplished in comparison with those of other countries.
WHO's assessment system was based on five indicators: In Europe, health systems in Mediterranean countries such as France, Italy and Spain are rated higher than others in the continent.
Norway is the highest Scandinavian nation, at 11th.
Colombia, Chile, Costa Rica and Cuba are rated highest among the Latin American nations — 22nd, 33rd, 36th and 39th in the world, respectively.
Singapore is ranked 6ththe only Asian country apart from Japan in the top 10 countries. In the Pacific, Australia ranks 32 nd overall, while New Zealand is 41st.
In the Middle East and North Africa, many countries rank highly: InOman's health care system was not performing well. The child mortality rate was high. But major government investments have proved to be successful in improving system performance.
Information in the WHO report also rates countries according to the different components of the performance index. The reason these are all advanced industrial nations is that a number of the elements of responsiveness depend strongly on the availability of resources.
In addition, many of these countries were the first to begin addressing the responsiveness of their health systems to people's needs. Fairness of financial contribution: When WHO measured the fairness of financial contribution to health systems, countries lined up differently.
The measurement is based on the fraction of a household's capacity to spend income minus food expenditure that goes on health care including tax payments, social insurance, private insurance and out of pocket payments.
Colombia achieved top rank because someone with a low income might pay the equivalent of one dollar per year for health care, while a high- income individual pays 7. Brazil, a middle-income nation, ranks low in this table because its people make high out-of-pocket payments for health care.
This means a substantial number of households pay a large fraction of their income after paying for food on health care.
The same explanation applies to the fairness of financing Peru's health system. The reason why the Russian Federation ranks low is most likely related to the impact of the economic crisis in the s. This has severely reduced government spending on health and led to increased out-of-pocket payment.
In North America, Canada rates as the country with the fairest mechanism for health system finance — ranked atwhile the United States is at Cuba is the highest among Latin American and Caribbean nations at The report indicates — clearly — the attributes of a good health system in relation to the elements of the performance measure, given below.
Overall Level of Health: A good health system, above all, contributes to good health.methodology that is based on best practices and that can be used across the federal government for developing, managing, and evaluating capital program cost estimates.
For the purposes of this guide, a cost estimate is the summation of individual cost elements, using. The Digital Communities program also conducts the annual Digital Cities and Digital Counties surveys, which track technology trends and identify and promote best practices in local government. Aug 26, · In theory, a republic is a political system in which the government remains mostly subject to those governed.
Some scholars define any political . Sep 18, · The Australian system is basically two-tiered: a public insurance-and-delivery system, and another based on private health insurance, each of which cover roughly half the population.
In talking with scores of men and women who deal with state data, this seems to emerge as one of the most important impediments to making the highest and best use of data. This is an unfortunate. According to the financial analysis presented in this study, if the government owns the plant, in order to maintain the current gate fee of US$16/ton, and recover the capital investment over the payback period of 23 years, the cost of capital for this plant should.