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United States congressional apportionment Under Article I, Section 2 of the Constitutionseats in the House of Representatives are apportioned among the states by population, as determined by the census conducted every ten years. Each state is entitled to at least one Representative, however small its population.
The only constitutional rule relating to the size of the House states: The Constitution does not provide for the representation of the District of Columbia or of territories. Virgin Islands are each represented business plan representative office vietnam one non-voting delegate.
Puerto Rico elects a Resident Commissionerbut other than having a four-year term, the Resident Commissioner's role is identical to the delegates from the other territories.
The five Delegates and Resident Commissioner may participate in debates; prior to they were also allowed to vote in committees and the Committee of the Whole when their votes would not be decisive.
Redistricting States that are entitled to more than one Representative are divided into single-member districts.
This has been a federal statutory requirement since States typically redraw district boundaries after each census, though they may do so at other times, such as the Texas redistricting. Each state determines its own district boundaries, either through legislation or through non-partisan panels.
Additionally, Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act of prohibits redistricting plans that are intended to, or have the effect of, discriminating against racial or language minority voters. Bandemerthe Supreme Court held that gerrymandered districts could be struck down on the basis of the Equal Protection Clausebut the Court did not articulate a standard for when districts are impermissibly gerrymandered.
However, the Court overruled Davis in in Vieth v. Jubelirerand Court precedent currently holds gerrymandering to be a political question. Members are not required to live in the districts they represent, but they traditionally do. The constitutional requirements of Article I, Section 2 for election to Congress are the maximum requirements that can be imposed on a candidate.
Likewise a State could not establish additional qualifications. This post—Civil War provision was intended to prevent those who sided with the Confederacy from serving. However, disqualified individuals may serve if they gain the consent of two-thirds of both houses of Congress.
Elections[ edit ] All voting seats of the current House shown grouped by state, largest to smallest Population per U. Representative allocated to each of the 50 states and D. By law, Representatives must be elected from single-member districts. After a census is taken in a year ending in 0the year ending in 2 is the first year in which elections for U.
House districts are based on that census with the Congress based on those districts starting its term on the following Jan. In most states, major party candidates for each district are nominated in partisan primary electionstypically held in spring to late summer.
In some states, the Republican and Democratic parties choose their respective candidates for each district in their political conventions in spring or early summer, which often use unanimous voice votes to reflect either confidence in the incumbent or the result of bargaining in earlier private discussions.
Exceptions can result in so-called floor fight—convention votes by delegates, with outcomes that can be hard to predict. Especially if a convention is closely divided, a losing candidate may contend further by meeting the conditions for a primary election.
The courts generally do not consider ballot access rules for independent and third party candidates to be additional qualifications for holding office and there are no federal regulations regarding ballot access. As a result, the process to gain ballot access varies greatly from state to state, and in the case of a third party may be affected by results of previous years' elections.
Inthe United States Congress passed the Uniform Congressional District Act, which requires almost all representatives be elected from single-member-districts.
Sanders decision, Congress was motivated by fears that courts would impose at-large plurality districts on states that did not redistrict to comply with the new mandates for districts roughly equal in population, and Congress also sought to prevent attempts by southern states to use such voting systems to dilute the vote of racial minorities.
The states of Washington and California now use a similar though not identical system to that used by Louisiana. Seats vacated during a term are filled through special elections, unless the vacancy occurs closer to the next general election date than a pre-established deadline.
The term of a member chosen in a special election usually begins the next day, or as soon as the results are certified. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
March Learn how and when to remove this template message Additionally, Washington D. With the exception of the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Ricoeach representative and delegate serves for a two-year term.
They have a voice and can introduce bills on the floor, but cannot vote there. Terms[ edit ] Representatives and Delegates serve for two-year terms, while the Resident Commissioner serves for four years.
A term starts on January 3 following the election in November.Nguyen Ba Duong, of the Institute for Military Social Sciences and Humanities, part of the National Defense Ministry, argued at the time that it was the de-politicization of armed forces that led to the fall of communist regimes in Eastern Europe in the s and ‘90s.
What is an accredited representative? An accredited representative is an individual who has undergone a formal application and training process and is recognized by VA as being capable of assisting claimants with their affairs before VA.
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Before establishing an economic organization, a foreign investor must have an investment project and carry out the.
Companies doing business in Vietnam, or planning to do so, are advised to obtain current and specific information from experienced plan for , including inflation curbing and macroeconomic stabilization; Sources: General Statistics Office (Ministry of Planning & Investment) by 31 Dec A.2 Leading industries 1.
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