Activation-induced apoptosis in human macrophages: Responsible for performing lab experiments, analyzing data.
T2 hyperintense lesions Provides total burden of disease measure, including reversible and irreversible pathologies. Most predictive of disease course in early MS. T1 hypointense lesions black holes Reflects more severe tissue pathology, including axon loss, and correlates with disability.
Atrophy Reflects axon loss, as well as other tissue component loss. Atrophy is detectable in both brain and spinal cord of MS patients. CNS atrophy is ongoing and accelerated compared to normal age-related changes. Often shows abnormalities in normal brain tissue.
Can be measured in whole brain NAA or in region of interest. Magnetization transfer imaging and magnetization transfer ratio Indicates more severe lesions, with tissue destruction. Abnormalities noted within both lesions and normal-appearing CNS tissue.
Can be measured in whole brain or in region of interest. Detects white matter changes. Can be used in conjunction with MS spectroscopy or magnetization transfer imaging. Current Status and Strategies for the Future. The National Academies Press. Gadolinium-enhancing activity on MRI correlates with clinical relapses and predicts increased risk or further disease activity.
However, since most new brain MRI lesions are clinically silent, gadolinium-enhanced lesions are seen more often than clinical relapses. In T2-weighted images, MS lesions appear as very bright white areas against a gray or more neutral background and are the most readily visualized MS lesions by MRI.
They reflect lesions with different pathology and of various ages, and reversible as well as irreversible abnormalities. T2-weighted hyperintense lesions can be used to measure the total lesion volume burden-of-disease.
The variable pathology, which is not distinguished in T2 burden-of-disease measures, is probably a determinant of associated disability. Only a modest relationship has been observed between T2 burden of disease and clinical disability in relapsing and secondary progressive MS.
However, in patients with clinically isolated syndromes who are in the early stages of MS, T2 burden-of-disease has been correlated with the development of MS, as well as the clinical subtype of MS and disability 10 years later. The magnitude of T2 burden-of-disease changes very early in the disease process and may be valuable for predicting subsequent course.
See also Carnegie stage 15 Events Features Identify: midbrain region, nasal pit, lens pit, 1st, 2nd and 3rd pharyngeal arches, 1st pharyngeal groove, maxillary and mandibular components of 1st pharyngeal arch, fourth ventricle of brain, heart prominence, cervical sinus, upper limb bud, mesonephric ridge, lower limb bud, umbilical cord Labelled. "A brief history of the cerebral ventricles from antiquity to Thomas Willis", American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Lecture/Seminar, San Diego, California, AANS - Section on the History of Neurological Surg, Invited, Cerebral Cortical Gray Matter Overgrowth and Functional Variation of the Serotonin Transporter Gene in Autism. SLC6A4 in the cerebellum relative to the cerebrum.
Atrophy of both brain and spinal cord can be detected in MS patients, including relapsing patients with minimal neurologic deficits. Recent studies suggest that CNS atrophy may be the best neuroimaging correlate for clinical disability reviewed in by Trapp et al.
A number of different methodologies are used to measure atrophy. Current advances involve measurement of the whole brain and improved automation, but the optimal technique has not been decided. NAA is a molecule that is virtually confined to axons and neurons.
Levels of NAA can fluctuate, suggesting that they can be used to measure reversible as well as irreversible damage. Reduced NAA is found not only within MS lesions but also in the normal-appearing white matter of relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive, and primary progressive MS patients.
In addition, NAA decrease in cerebellar white matter has been correlated with clinical ataxia. This appears to be a more meaningful neuroimaging marker to evaluate axon damage.
MR spectroscopy can also be used to measure lipid changes within both lesions and normal- Page 40 Share Cite Suggested Citation:I am indebted to many individuals who assisted with the preparation of this manuscript, including: Renee Tindall, Dr. Fernando Murillo, Dr.
Scott Lowery, Dr. Kae Chatman, Angie Brown, and Louise Geer. FULL TEXT Abstract: PURPOSE: To develop and implement a method for improved cerebellar tissue classification on the MRI of brain by automatically isolating the.
Boris C. Bastian, MD, PhD. Professor of Dermatology and Pathology, University of California, San Francisco Gerson and Barbara Bass Bakar Distinguished Professor in Cancer Research, UCSF.
The central theme of Dr. Gentili's research is to understand the brain processes underlying human motor behavior by employing, experimental cognitive-motor neuroscience, computational modeling and robotics-based approaches. The expansion of the cerebral cortex, and in particular that of its prefrontal region, is a major evolutionary landmark in the emergence of human cognition.
Our results suggest that this may be, at least in part, a natural outcome of increasing brain size. Steven Hetts, MD is Chief of Interventional Neuroradiology at the UCSF Mission Bay Hospitals, where he provides cutting-edge, minimally invasive endovascular therapy for children and adults with stroke, cerebrovascular disease and tumors, including retinoblastoma.