In tissue culture experiments, the plant explants are supplemented with optimal nutrients including carbohydrate as the energy source and hormones as growth regulators.
Fertilization of these soils is therefore a necessary practice.
Response to organic or inorganic fertilizers is usually obtained. To decrease the loss of applied nutrients, especially N by leaching, several practices have been suggested, such as: Experience with these practices has shown the following: When phosphorus was distributed along a sandy soil column 15 cm long, The yield from clover and horse beans increased with P fertilization and the increase was doubled when the seeds were inoculated with specific rhizobia strains.
Pelleting NH4 2SO4 decreased its leachability from sand columns. Leaching of ureaform was lower than NH4 2SO4. In sand pots planted with maize, pelleting NH4 2SO4 or dividing its application into 3 portions increased the dry weight of plants and the amount of absorbed N. Use of ureaform in the above-mentioned pot experiment showed that the conditions of growth were not suitable for the plants.
Incubation studies showed that in the case of UF-sand and urea-sand systems, the pH increased from 7. Response of wheat to urea on sandy soils was lower than to other N carriers.
The economics of organic fertilization and layer formation should be taken into consideration. Rates of fertilizer application for different crops and soils should.
A programme of field investigations is suggested. Previous experience with these soils has shown that their production is low and expensive.
This is attributed mainly to their low fertility level as well as to the loss of water and applied nutrients by leaching. Attempts to improve their production and decrease expenses were made by: Farming practices in sandy soils have made considerable progress in the last few years, particularly in the above four fields.
In this report are presented the problems related to soil fertility and methods of organic and inorganic fertilization of these soils. Soils containing high percentages of this fraction are generally rich in nutrient elements and retain them when they are applied.
The main constituent of sandy soils is the sand fraction and this does not supply any nutrient to the growing plants. Accordingly the fertility level of sandy soils is controlled by their clay and organic matter content.
Nutrients applied to raise their low fertility level remain in solution, subject to loss by leaching. The portion of nutrients which might be retained by the soil is controlled by the amount of the soil fine fraction.
Also, because sand is the major constituent of these soils, their water retention is low. The applied water moves downward easily and the oil needs frequent irrigation at short intervals. Such conditions aggravate the loss of nutrients via the water 2.
In the Nile alluvial soils these values are about 1 and 12 - 15 ppm respectively. Good soil management which leads to an increase in the fine fraction and the application of organic manures would tend to increase the phosphorus content and, consequently, the soil fertility.
The loss of fertilizer P by leaching is not a problem in most soils. Phosphorus is usually immobilized upon incorporation in the soil, but because of the low content of clay and organic fractions in the sandy soils, a limited movement takes place of applied phosphate fertilizers by convection with irrigation water.
Early work by the writer Balba, showed that phosphorus applied to a column 15 cm long of El Khanka sandy soil was distributed along the soil column and the filtrate contained 3. The filtrates of columns of a clay loam soil fertilized with P did not contain any significant amount of P above the content of filtrates of unfertilized columns.
Actually, all added P was recovered in the first 2. Obviously, the immobilization of P at the soil column surface increases with the increase in the fine soil fraction.
Thus one expects the P to move with water when this fraction diminishes, as in the case of some sandy soils. Under field conditions applied phosphatic fertilizers are better distributed in the root zone and the plants have a greater chance to absorb their need of this element.
Experiments carried out on P fertilization in sandy soils showed crop response to increments of P. They also showed that this increase was doubled when the seeds of clover and beans were inoculated with specific strains of rhizobia.
Further work on this point is still needed to evaluate relationships between P and micro nutrients as well as the most economical rate of P application to each crop in different locations.
These soils contain about 5.The term "Microservice Architecture" has sprung up over the last few years to describe a particular way of designing software applications as suites of independently deployable.
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