Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Regulating the Lives of Women:
Short-term efforts[ edit ] Concept diagram of underwater oil containment domes originally planned for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. At this stage, there were 2 remaining oil leaks from the fallen pipeline.
Oil containment dome under construction in Port Fourchon, Louisiana, at Wild Well Control on 26 April First, BP unsuccessfully attempted to close the blowout preventer valves on the wellhead with remotely operated underwater vehicles.
While this technique had worked in shallower water, it failed here when gas combined with cold water to form methane hydrate crystals that blocked the opening at the top of the dome. A final device was created to attach a chamber of larger diameter than the flowing pipe with a flange that bolted to the top of the blowout preventer and a manual valve set to close off the flow once attached.
On 15 July, the device was secured and time was taken closing the valves to ensure the attachment under increasing pressure until the valves were closed completing the temporary measures.
A spokesperson for the U. Energy Department said that "neither Energy Secretary Steven Chu nor anyone else" ever considered this option. Pumping continued for eight hours, at the end of which time the well was declared to be "in a static condition. Chemical data implied that the substance might be residual oil leaking from the wreckage.
If that proves to be the case, the sheen can be expected to eventually disappear.
Another possibility is that it is formation oil escaping from the subsurface, using the Macondo well casing as flow conduit, possibly intersecting a naturally occurring fault, and then following that to escape at the surface some distance from the wellhead.
If it proves to be oil from the subsurface, then that could indicate the possibility of an indefinite release of oil.
The oil slick was comparable in size to naturally occurring oil seeps and was not large enough to pose an immediate threat to wildlife. Deepwater Horizon oil spill response The fundamental strategies for addressing the spill were containment, dispersal and removal.
Boat captains were given the opportunity to offer the use of their boat to help clean and prevent the oil from further spreading.
To assist with the efforts the captains had to register their ships with the Vessels of Opportunity, however an issue arose when more boats registered than actually participated in the clean up efforts - only a third of the registered boats.
This coalition gained significant influence in the clean up of the oil spill to try and gain some control over the situation.
Booms extend 18—48 inches 0. The plan was criticised for its expense and poor results. The dangers are even greater when poured into the source of a spill, because they are picked up by the current and wash through the Gulf.
Repeated or excessive exposure According to EPA 's report, the released amount is not enough to pose an added cancer risk to workers and coastal residents, while a second research team concluded that there was only a small added risk. Oil was collected from water by using skimmers. In total 2, various skimmers were used.
Many large-scale skimmers exceeded the limit. Two main types of affected coast were sandy beaches and marshes. On beaches the main techniques were sifting sand, removing tar balls, and digging out tar mats manually or by using mechanical devices.
Mixing dispersants with oil at the wellhead would keep some oil below the surface and in theory, allowing microbes to digest the oil before it reached the surface.
Various risks were identified and evaluated, in particular that an increase in microbial activity might reduce subsea oxygen levels, threatening fish and other animals. Valentine, a professor of microbial geochemistry at UC Santa Barbarasaid that the capability of microbes to break down the leaked oil had been greatly exaggerated.Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, – June 24, ) was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office (– and –).Preceded by: Benjamin Harrison.
The 5th Artillery Group BIG UNIT – BIG HEART The 5th Artillery Group is the Brigade's largest group, both in the number of service members it has and the number of detachments it contains. 79 Stat. - An Act for the Relief of Pola Bodenstein.
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Translate the essential implications of Rays Computer Simulation (page ) and the Fishing Experiment Findings of Allen (page ) in terms of how they might apply to childcare. Use the order calculator below and get started! Translate the essential implications of "Ray's Computer Simulation" (page ) and the "Fishing Experiment Findings of Allen" (page ) in terms of how they might apply to.