Outcome expectancies and self-efficacy. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, Sex, sex-role self-concepts and career decision-making self-efficacy among Arab students.
Once granted CRLA certification, the tutor training programs each have the authority to recognize their tutors as having met the approved ITTPC tutor training program requirements.
First, it provides recognition and positive reinforcement for tutors' successful work from an international organization, CRLA.
Second, CRLA's tutor training program certification process sets an internationally accepted standard of skills and training for tutors. ITTPC does not certify tutors or tutor trainers, but instead certifies tutor training programs which can, in turn, recognize their tutors who have met all of the requirements of their tutor training program.
History Infollowing a national conference, a team was formed to propose and create a formal tutor training program standard for programs in the US and Canada. Below is an introduction to the linked document: These are broad statements that identify the knowledge and skills that tutors should acquire in their training and preparation.
Specifically they appear in Section 2B and the Summary charts. Consider the following points: Your training must include a minimum of eight topics for a minimum of ten hours of instruction at Level 1, eight topics for an additional ten hours at Level 2, including a review of Level 1, and six topics for an additional ten hours of instruction at Level 3, including a review of Levels 1 and 2.
Be aware of how you are utilizing the minimum 10 hours of training. While the logistics of your program and your institution are important, the bulk of your training time should focus on the skill-specific content as suggested by the ITTPC.
Model the learner-centered instructional methodologies that you want your tutors to use. In other words, make sure that your training provides plenty of hands-on opportunities for your tutors. Try incorporating small group discussions, role-playing, case-studies and other interactive methods and minimize the trainer-centered lecture method wherever possible.
However only one can count towards the minimum number of topics. These are the specific behaviors, information and skills that you want your tutors to incorporate into their everyday tutoring work.
Outcomes are the intended result of your tutor training. Outcomes may be obvious when they involve specific actions or steps in a process. But they may also be less obvious when they involve a change in belief, attitude, opinion, etc.
In order to be effective you must be able to observe and measure the outcomes over both the short and long term. By making your intended outcomes very clear during tutor training, you will increase the likelihood that your tutors will learn and demonstrate the skills you are teaching.
Too often trainers omit this important step in the training process. Be sure your intended outcomes are specific. For example indicating that you want tutors to demonstrate effective tutoring skills is very vague and open to interpretation.
This describes specific activities in your training that show how you evaluate and measure the effectiveness of your intended learning objectives, or outcomes. Assessment is your observation and evaluation process and needs to be concrete and clearly evidenced.
The most effective assessment strategies include both formative and summative evaluations, which, when used together, can help you determine whether your training results in a specific set of attitudes, behaviors and skill-sets for both short and long term tutor effectiveness. How do you communicate specific learning activities and desired outcomes to your tutors?
How do you teach the specific skills and topics? What materials and methods do you use to teach? What evidence can you share with the reviewers that clearly demonstrate items ? Utilize allotted time for development of an individual certification plan to carefully rethink an existing tutorial program, an opportunity for a fresh perspective.The Case Against Grades By Alfie Kohn [This is a slightly expanded version of the published article.] “I remember the first time that a grading rubric was attached to .
The Evidence: A Brief Survey Approaching the Bible In order to examine the evidence for the resurrection we must place ourselves in the historical situation.
The events surrounding the life and death of Christ didn't occur at a place where we can gain no knowledge of them. Rather, they occurred in history, on earth, and were recorded by men who witnessed the events. Performance Theory. Performance Theory Performance theory is the broad idea that not only do we perform on stage, we perform the everyday life.
With each situation we face, we must choose how to act accordingly. Performance theory questions why we perform the way we do in certain situations, and which factors affect those . Historical Evidence Outside of the Bible.
Often people are uncertain about the existence of Christ, but few scholars would disagree that a man named Jesus lived roughly between 2 BC and about 33 AD. That seems different, though, because it requires rejecting one ideology/ingroup, namely Catholicism.
It makes sense that people identifying as Catholic would resent that the Protestants found a way to weaken Catholicism, and apparently people who “took the soup” were ostracized.
Over Thanksgiving, I was discussing tulip subsidies with the pro-Bernie-Sanders faction of my family, and my uncle claimed that we needed college because “it teaches you how to think critically”.. The evidence sort of supports him, but with the usual caveats and uncertainties.
First of all, what the heck is critical thinking?