Critical Thinking About Research: Psychology and Related Fields by Julian Meltzoff. Psychology and Related Fields Paperback I used this text in an undergraduate research course in the behavioral sciences department.
He received a bachelor's of arts degree in Psychology, in from Duke University, and went on to earn a master's degree in Psychology in and then a doctorate in Psychology in from Harvard University.
Eisenhowerresearching social psychological phenomena. He returned to the United States into continue his research in developmental psychology. Cognitive psychology Bruner is one of the pioneers of cognitive psychology in the United States, which began through his own early research on sensation and perception as being active, rather than passive processes.
InBruner published his study Value and Need as Organizing Factors in Perception, in which poor and rich children were asked to estimate the size of coins or wooden disks the size of American penniesnickelsdimesquarters and half-dollars.
The results showed that the value and need the poor and rich children associated with coins caused them to significantly overestimate the size of the coins, especially when compared to their more accurate estimations of the same size disks.
InBruner published the book A Study of Thinking, which formally initiated the study of cognitive psychology. After a time, Bruner began to research other topics in psychology, but in he returned to the subject and gave a series of lectures, later compiled into the book Acts of Meaning.
In these lectures, Bruner refuted the computer model for studying the mindadvocating a more holistic understanding of the mind and its cognitions.
Developmental psychology Beginning aroundBruner turned his attention to the subject of developmental psychology and studied the way children learn. He coined the term "scaffolding" to describe the way children often build on the information they have already mastered.
In his research on the development of children Bruner proposed three modes of representation: Rather than neatly delineated stages, the modes of representation are integrated and only loosely sequential as they "translate" into each other.
Symbolic representation remains the ultimate mode, for it "is clearly the most mysterious of the three. A true instructional designerBruner's work also suggests that a learner even of a very young age is capable of learning any material so long as the instruction is organized appropriately, in sharp contrast to the beliefs of Piaget and other stage theorists.
Like Bloom's TaxonomyBruner suggests a system of coding in which people form a hierarchical arrangement of related categories.
Each successively higher level of categories becomes more specific, echoing Benjamin Bloom 's understanding of knowledge acquisition as well as the related idea of instructional scaffolding. In accordance with this understanding of learning, Bruner proposed the spiral curriculuma teaching approach in which each subject or skill area is revisited at intervals, at a more sophisticated level each time.
First there is basic knowledge of a subject, then more sophistication is added, reinforcing principles that were first discussed. This system is used in China and India. Bruner's spiral curriculum, however, draws heavily from evolution to explain how to learn better and thus it drew criticism from conservatives.
In the United States classes are split by grade—life sciences in 9th grade, chemistry in 10th, physics in 11th. The spiral teaches life sciences, chemistry, physics all in one year, then two subjects, then one, then all three again to understand how they mold together.
Educational psychology While Bruner was at Harvard he published a series of works about his assessment of current educational systems and ways that education could be improved. Inhe published the book Process of Education. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. Referencing his overall view that education should not focus merely on memorizing facts, Bruner wrote in Process of Education that "knowing how something is put together is worth a thousand facts about it.
A Course of Study. Bruner wanted to create an educational environment that would focus on 1 what was uniquely human about human beings, 2 how humans got that way and 3 how humans could become more so. Finally, inin The Culture of Education, Bruner reassessed the state of educational practices three decades after he had begun his educational research.
Bruner was also credited with helping found the Head Start early childcare program.
Equally important was the relationship with the Italian Ministry of Education which officially recognized the value of this innovative experience. Language development InBruner was appointed Watts Professor of Experimental Psychology at the University of Oxfordwhere he remained until In his Oxford years, Bruner focused on early language development.
Rejecting the nativist account of language acquisition proposed by Noam ChomskyBruner offered an alternative in the form of an interactionist or social interactionist theory of language development. In this approach, the social and interpersonal nature of language was emphasized, appealing to the work of philosophers such as Ludwig WittgensteinJohn L.
Austin and John Searle for theoretical grounding. He emphasized that children learn language in order to communicate, and, at the same time, they also learn the linguistic code.
Meaningful language is acquired in the context of meaningful parent-infant interaction, learning "scaffolded" or supported by the child's language acquisition support system LASS. Much emphasis was placed on employing the then-revolutionary method of videotaped home-observations, Bruner showing the way to a new wave of researchers to get out of the laboratory and take on the complexities of naturally occurring events in a child's life.
This work was published in a large number of journal articles, and in Bruner published a summary in the book Child's talk: Learning to Use Language. This decade of research established Bruner at the helm of the interactionist approach to language development, exploring such themes as the acquisition of communicative intents and the development of their linguistic expression, the interactive context of language use in early childhood, and the role of parental input and scaffolding behavior in the acquisition of linguistic forms.
This work rests on the assumptions of a social constructivist theory of meaning according to which meaningful participation in the social life of a group as well as meaningful use of language involve an interpersonal, intersubjective, collaborative process of creating shared meaning.
The elucidation of this process became the focus of Bruner's next period of work.Personal life.
Piaget was born in in Neuchâtel, in the Francophone region of rutadeltambor.com was the oldest son of Arthur Piaget (Swiss), a professor of medieval literature at the University of Neuchâtel, and Rebecca Jackson (French).Piaget was a precocious child .
Critical Thinking About Research by Julian Meltzoff, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Critical Thinking about Research: Psychology and Related Fields (Julian Meltzoff) at rutadeltambor.com "Critical Thinking About Research" equips students with the tools to identify flaws in others' research and reduce them to a minimum in their own work.
Following the practical guidance and guided practice in this book, researchers at all levels can hone their evaluative skills. Critical Thinking About Research: Psychology and Related Fields equips you with those tools needed to identify errors in others' research and to reduce them to a minimum in your own work.
Contents I. Principles. Critical Thinking About Research: Psychology and Related Fields equips you with those tools needed to identify errors in others' research and to reduce them to a minimum in your own work. Contents I. Principles.
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