What are nucleic acids? What is the historical origin of their name?
The main function of DNA is to store genetic information of an organism and transfer the information to the offspring. The main function of RNA in the cell is to assist protein synthesis.
A nucleotide is made up of a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and one, two, or three phosphate groups. In RNA, uracil U is found instead of thymine.
Alternating sugar and phosphate molecules form the backbone of the nucleic acid. The bond that occurs between a sugar and a phosphate group of another nucleotide is a phosphodiester bond. The order of the nitrogenous bases determines the type of information stored in the molecule.
What is an Amino Acid An amino acid refers to a simple organic molecule, which contains both carboxyl and amino groups.
Generally, twenty different amino acids serve as building blocks of proteins. Both carboxylic and amino groups are attached to the same carbon. Therefore, each amino acid differs from another amino acid by the type of R group attached to the carbon.
The chemical properties of the R group determine the properties of amino acids.
The structure of a typical amino acid is shown in figure 2. Structure of an Amino Acid Twenty amino acids serve as building blocks of proteins. Each amino acid is represented by a codon in the genetic code. During protein synthesis, the mRNA molecule includes the sequence of amino acids in a functional protein.
The twenty amino acids are shown in figure 3.
Twenty Amino Acids In humans, nine amino acids are considered as essential amino acids since they cannot be synthesized by the body.
Therefore, these amino acids should be included in the diet. Other amino acids are synthesized inside the body in various biochemical pathways. Similarities Between Nucleic Acid and Amino Acid Both nucleic acid and amino acid are two biomolecules inside the cell.
Both nucleic acid and amino acid are made up of C, H, O, and N.
Nucleic acids are related to amino acids in protein synthesis. Nucleic acid is a polymer.
Amino acid is a monomer. The monomer of a nucleic acid are nucleotides. The polymer of amino acids is a protein. Functional Groups Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acids are made up of pentose sugars, nitrogenous bases and phosphate groups.
Amino acids contain carboxylic groups and amino groups.
Type of Bond between Monomers Nucleic Acid: Phosphodiester bonds occur between nucleotides. Peptide bonds occur between amino acids. Proteins are made up of twenty amino acids.
Nucleic acids are synthesized inside the cell by DNA replication and transcription. Amino acids are either synthesized or obtained from the diet.
Nucleic acids store genetic information of the cell and are involved in the synthesis of functional proteins. Amino acids are used in the translation of mRNA as building blocks of proteins.
Conclusion Nucleic acid and amino acid are two types of biomolecules in the cell.As with the synthesis of polysaccharides and lipids, the formation of the nucleic acids and proteins from their building blocks requires the input of energy.
Nucleic acid s are formed from nucleoside triphosphates, with concomitant elimination of inorganic pyrophosphate, which is subsequently.
Nucleic acids are the biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life. Transfer RNA serves as the carrier molecule for amino acids to be used in protein synthesis, and is responsible for decoding the mRNA.
In addition, many other classes of RNA are now known. Apr 28, · “Bridged Nucleic Acids” (BNANC) and their use are covered by patents and patent applications owned by BNA Inc. BNA3 TM is a trademark owned by Bio-Synthesis. The amino acid in the P site is covalently attached via a peptide bond (condensation reaction) to the amino acid in the A site The tRNA in the P site is now deacylated (no amino acid), while the tRNA in the A site carries the peptide chain.
Nov 14, · This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. NUCLEIC ACIDS. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 1 Nucleic acid Outline Nucleic acids: Structure & functions of DNA & RNA: H-bonding, base pairing, similarities and.