A Developmental Model for Global Leaders.
Mastering these weapons can mean the difference between victory and defeat on the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan. It is a vital element for military and civilian personnel who must frequently interact with people from other cultures—both here in the United States and when deployed or operating in other countries.
Cross-cultural competence can prove very advantageous, as it equips individuals with the requisite knowledge, skills, abilities, and personal characteristics that enable them to function effectively in culturally diverse situations.
Thus, 3C helps mitigate undesirable and costly outcomes by supporting critical skills, including those needed for conflict resolution, communication, stress coping, language acquisition, tolerance for ambiguity, and adapting to living in other cultures McDonald et al.
This article addresses how 3C can enhance proficiency in cross-cultural interactions and improve readiness in operational environments, as well as provides insight into some of the current efforts being employed in the U.
Department of Defense DoD to address such demands. Although cross-cultural competence has been known to enhance proficiency in cross-cultural interactions and improve readiness in operational environments, incorporating these skills in the cultural learning process for DoD personnel operating in joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational contexts remains a nascent endeavor Reid, et al.
Recent examples in the news demonstrate how a lack of 3C can markedly damage tenuous alliances between American and Middle Eastern allies seeking to collaboratively combat terrorism. These incidents not only jeopardize our relationship with those allies, consequently undermining growing relations, but further incense radicalized individuals, elevating the threat they represent to our troops.
Consequently, these cultural blunders continue to place an exponentially higher number of American The importance of intercultural complexities in human resource management members at risk. Hence, this article does not seek to provide an exhaustive review of the vast literature addressing cross-cultural competence.
Instead, the foremost objective is to exemplify the value of 3C tenets in a combat environment—one in which the practical applications have significant relevance to the field of I-O psychology. Background Given the ever-changing global landscape and the adaptive nature of military operations in dynamic and asymmetric warfare environments, 3C has emerged as a vital asset that equips military personnel to optimally execute mission objectives abroad Reid et al.
Many leaders in the DoD have recognized the critical need for our military personnel to be cognitively, socially, and culturally adept to effectively meet the changing needs and growing spectrum of varied missions our Armed Forces currently face.
The emergent nature of these missions has increased the need for adaptive interpersonal interaction and skills, despite the continuous advancement of technology that serves to maximize the distance between our service members and adversaries who threaten them.
These types of missions often require close interaction between ground personnel and those from other cultural backgrounds, including both allies and adversaries. The combination of language, regional expertise, and cultural LREC capabilities has become increasingly important given the emerging need for allied forces at the ground level to interact with the local populace.
According to Leon Panetta, the U. At the same time, it has proven especially difficult to predict the locations and intercultural partnerships that would benefit from this type of specialized training. Complementary to these best practices, Caliguiri, Pepak, and Bonache developed a framework that explicates the importance and application of culture-general—as opposed to culture-specific—knowledge in understanding cultural differences and successfully navigating around culturally-complex situations.
From a management perspective, there are three overarching themes that emerge to create and sustain a competitive global workforce. Gaining credibility within a cross-cultural context is arguably the first step an expatriate should attempt to take when entering a new company in an international setting.
Likewise, Calguiri et al. Cross-cultural competence covers a broad domain of individual qualities and capabilities deemed critical to mission performance in novel cultural settings. Based on an extensive analysis of the research literature, and after refining competency definitions found among previously identified 3C learning statements, the researchers identified six core competencies and 13 core enablers deemed fundamental to the development of 3C Johnston et al.
The core competencies that include thinking and connecting factors are cognitive, behavioral, and affective in nature. The thinking factors include declarative, procedural, and conceptual knowledge, as well as critical thinking skills Johnston et al.
Conversely, the connecting factor represents the social engagement aspect, which relies on human interaction. The core enablers, on the other hand, are those personal characteristics that predispose individuals to act in a certain manner.
The core enablers are divided into two factors: The resilience factors allow an individual to recover from, or easily adjust to, change or stressful circumstances Johnston et al. Similar to the connecting factor of the core competencies, the engagement factor extends beyond resilience by facilitating proactive interactions in diverse contexts Johnston et al.
This model has helped to provide a framework for understanding the interplay between malleable, state-like capabilities and the more immutable trait-like characteristics—the latter of which can be used to select more qualified individuals into leadership positions where these talents can be effectively leveraged.
In line with this effort, the DLNSEO is currently in the process of building a new 3C model that converges the extant models by identifying overarching cross-cultural competencies.
A data reduction approach was employed in an effort to determine a final list of critical constructs in the domain of 3C development.
This model is intended to be implemented as DoD policy that will guide myriad factors in workforce planning. Once finalized, the DoD will ultimately leverage this model to educate and train the General Purpose Force, as well as assign military service members to areas that are culturally diverse.
Thus, the expectation is that these military personnel will operate at far higher levels of effectiveness, by virtue of their 3C expertise. Sustaining 3C at Various Levels Cross-cultural competence is recognized as a critical capability that helps personnel become mission ready and meet the challenges of this decade.
Subsequently, individuals must work with a team of other people—even within the U. In order to communicate effectively and lead these groups, personnel must possess adequate 3C to work with those who are different from themselves.
Cross-cultural competence is also important in fostering partnerships with coalitions and host nations. The accepted practices, behaviors, and mission goals may differ widely across forces, and in order to coordinate and integrate these commands, success will depend on addressing, understanding, and adapting to these cultural differences.
Leaders are commonly tasked to lead teams in a variety of missions, forcing them to meet operational needs and to perform effectively in cross-cultural environments.Human Resource Management Review, 16,  Kramer, R.
Developing global leaders: Enhancing competencies and accelerating the expatriate experience. A. Podsiadlowski et al. / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 37 () – 2.
Diversity There are many ways to deﬁne diversity. Most focus on various dimensions, such as gender, age, ethnicity, nationality.
resource management (HRM), including but not limited to human resource planning, staffing, performance management, training and education, compensation and benefits and labour relations undertaken by organizations to utilize its human resources effectively has evolved as.
Challenges for human resource management and global business strategy. More than ever in history, companies and organizations today face both the opportunity and the challenge of employing global workforces that diverge in age, gender, education and culture. Also to discuss how communication helps when it is understood in clear systematic manner to reach the goal of the organisation.
Key words: Human Resources, Management, Work Culture, Intercultural Communication, Managerial Communication. Human Resource Management. 1. INTRODUCTION Global leadership which requires a systemic view and addressing diverse economic, social and environmental issues, also brings vitality and new opportunities to an organization through innovation, talent engagement and cost savings.